Minor snake venom proteins: Structure, function andpotential applications

Johara Boldrini-França, Camila Takeno Cologna, Manuela Berto Pucca, Karla de Castro Figueiredo Bordona, Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Fernando Antonio Pino Anjolette, Francielle Almeida Cordeiro ,Gisele Adriano Wiezel, Felipe Augusto Cerni, Ernesto Lopes Pinheiro-Junior, Priscila Yumi Tanaka Shibao, Isabela Gobbo Ferreira, Isadora Sousa de Oliveira, Iara Aimê Cardoso, Eliane Candiani Arantes

Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as researchand biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The mostabundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been usedfor different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored,even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies onthe impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation. The advent ofmore sensitive techniques in the last few years allowed the discovery of new venom components and the in-depth study of some already known minor proteins. This review summarizes information regarding some struc-tural and functional aspects of low abundant snake venom proteins classes, such as growth factors, hyaluroni-dases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, nucleases and nucleotidases, cobra venom factors, vespryns, proteaseinhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, among others. Some potential applications of these molecules are discussedherein in order to encourage researchers to explore the full venom repertoire and to discover new moleculesor applications for the already known venom components